At the 2011 UN Climate Change Conference, the Durban Platform (and the ad hoc working group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action) were created to negotiate a legal instrument to mitigate climate change from 2020. The resulting agreement is expected to be adopted in 2015.  Following the signing of the UNFCCC Treaty, the parties to the UNFCCC met at conferences (“Conferences of the Parties” -COPs) to discuss ways to achieve the treaty`s objectives. At the first Conference of the Parties (COP-1), the parties decided that the objective of the Schedule I parties to stabilize their emissions at their 1990 level by the year 2000 was “not appropriate” and further discussions took place at subsequent conferences on the Kyoto Protocol in 1997. The Kyoto Protocol was concluded and legally binding commitments were made under international law to enable developed countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions over the 2008-2012 period.  At the 2010 United Nations Climate Change Conference, an agreement was presented to limit global warming to less than 2oC above pre-industrial levels.  Countries are also working to reach “the global peak in greenhouse gas emissions” as soon as possible. The agreement has been described as an incentive and engine for the sale of fossil fuels.   Adaptation issues have been at the forefront of the paris agreement.
Collective long-term adaptation objectives are included in the agreement and countries must be accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the mitigation agreement.  Adaptation objectives focus on improving adaptive capacity, resilience and vulnerability limitation.  The Paris Agreement is the world`s first comprehensive climate agreement.  Although the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration formally communicated to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally entitled to do so.  The formal declaration of resignation could not be submitted until after the agreement for the United States came into force on November 4, 2019 for a three-year date.
  On November 4, 2019, the U.S. government filed the withdrawal notice with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, custodian of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal came into effect.  After the November 2020 elections, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement for his first day in office and renew the U.S. commitment to climate change mitigation.   The level of NCC defined by each country will determine the objectives of that country. However, the “contributions” themselves are not binding under international law because of the lack of specificity, normative nature or language necessary to establish binding standards.  In addition, there will be no mechanism to compel a country to set a target in its NDC on a specified date and not for an application if a defined target is not achieved in an NDC.   There will be only one “Name and Shame” system or as “I`m Our Pesztor,” the United States.