Western European countries were ready to consider a collective security solution. In response to rising tensions and security concerns, representatives from several Western European countries came together to form a military alliance. Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg signed the Treaty of Brussels in March 1948. Their contract offered collective defence; If one of these nations was attacked, the others were obliged to defend them. At the same time, the Truman administration introduced a peace project, increased military spending and called on the historically isolationist Republican Congress to consider a military alliance with Europe. In May 1948, Republican Senator Arthur H. Vandenburg proposed a resolution in which he proposed that the President want a security treaty with Western Europe, which respects the Charter of the United Nations, but which exists outside the Security Council where the Soviet Union was a veto. The Vandenburg Resolution was adopted and negotiations on the North Atlantic Treaty began. The Yugoslav conflict – and other simultaneous conflicts in the Caucasus and elsewhere – has shown that the power vacuum after the Cold War is a source of dangerous instability. Partnership mechanisms needed to be strengthened so that non-NATO countries could cooperate with the Alliance to reform democratic and military institutions in development and to learn about their strategic isolation. As part of these development efforts, the Allies founded the Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme in 1994. The Partnership for Peace has enabled non-NATO countries or “partners” to exchange information with NATO allies and modernize their military in accordance with modern democratic standards.
Partners were encouraged to choose their own commitment within the Alliance. The path to full membership would remain open to those who have decided to pursue it. The USSR responded in 1955 by creating the Warsaw Pact. After the AHR joined the North Atlantic Treaty on 9 May 1955, the socialist countries of Eastern Europe joined together to form a military alliance. The members of this mutual defence pact to combat aggression were the USSR, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GDR, Hungary, Poland and Romania. The Cold War was a period of east-west competition, tensions and conflicts, marked by a mutual perception of hostile intentions between military-political alliances or blocs. There have been real wars, sometimes called “proxy wars,” because they were fought by Soviet allies and not by the USSR itself, with competition for influence in the third world and a great race for superpowers. Despite the general agreement on the concept behind the contract, it took several months to develop the precise conditions.
The U.S. Congress had embarked on the search for an international alliance, but remained concerned about the text of the treaty. Western European nations wanted the United States to intervene automatically in the event of an attack, but under the U.S. Constitution, the power to declare war rested in Congress. The negotiations aimed to find language that would reassure European states, but did not require the United States to act in a manner contrary to its own laws. In addition, European contributions to collective security would require significant military support from the United States to help rebuild Western European`s defence capabilities. While European nations have advocated for individual subsidies and aid, the United States has sought to make aid dependent on regional coordination. A third point was the question of scope.
The signatories to the Brussels Treaty called for membership of the Treaty to be limited to members of the treaty as well as to the United States. U.S. negotiators felt that there would be more to gain if the new treaty were extended to North Atlantic countries, including Canada, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Ireland and Portugal.